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TOS 7. Disclaimer 9. TNAU assumed full responsibilities of Agricultural Education and Research and supported the State Agricultural Department by delivering research products. This disease is more common in those areas, where groundnut-groundnut cropping system is existing. Leaf wetness is also one of the causes of these diseases. Whereas, it moves along with southerly winds from Nilgiri hills to northern India. The development of the disease depends upon the infection, which is influenced by temperature conditions, leaf wetness and high humidity. Disease Management(Wheat Disease) Management options are generally the same for all corn seedling diseases. Weekly mean temperature should be equal to or less than 24°C. If these conditions prevail for two days, late blight of potato is likely to appear after a period of 10 days. Lecture 03 - Wheat: Lecture 04 - Pearl Millet: Lecture 05 - Maize: Lecture 06 - Sugarcane: Lecture 07 - Turmeric: Lecture 08 - Tobacco: Lecture 09 - Groundnut: Lecture 10 - Castor: Lecture 11 - Sunflower: Lecture 12 - Sesamum: Lecture 13 - Cotton: Lecture 14 - Red gram: Lecture 15 - Black gram: Lecture 16 - Green Gram: Lecture 17 - Bengal Gram: Lecture 18 - Soyabean: DISEASE OF FIELD CROP AND … Multiple regression indicated that maximum temperature alone is important in predicting the disease outbreak. There should be more number of rainy days. iii. In the wheat season, the weather conditions are favourable for the yellow rust in north India. There is no major incidence of pests in this samba wheat culture. Though the black rust can survive in the northern hills throughout the summer season, the source of inoculum concerned in the epidemiology of the black rust is the Nilgiri hills of the south. Hope you enjoyed our video lecture which covers the following topics: crops diseases list diseases of horticultural crops and their management pdf diseases of field crops and their management tnau diseases of field crops and their management agrimoon crop diseases and their management book pdf crop diseases and their management pdf in hindi diseases of field crops book diseases of field crops … The pathogen survives from one season to the next as dormant mycelium (fungal threads) within the embryo of the barley seed. These biotic agents are, therefore, infectious, and the diseases they cause are termed infectious diseases. • Infections occur during periods of extended wetness. iv. Temperature should range between 22-35°C. Generally cloudy weather, low temperature and high humidity are favourable for the development of the disease. Late blight of potato could be predicted by using synoptic charts and warnings were issued four days ahead for spraying the potato crop against late blight. Higher duration of leaf wetness due to dew, fog and rainfall. Price: Free . The severity of the leaf spot is higher in kharif season than in rabi and summer season. Decay of root bark. Critical value may be referred to the value which can keep the leaf wet. Glume blotch of Wheat Disease cycle and epidemiology: • The septoria leaf and glume blotch pathogen survives within infested straw, seed and on volunteer wheat and serves as the source of inoculum with a new crop of wheat. High humidity and lower temperature should persist. iii. Early leaf spot can appear after a few weeks of sowing. Wetting, splashing rains and strong winds are favourable for disease spread. WHEAT :: MAJOR DISEASES ::YELLOW OR STRIPE RUST . If transplanted crop: Diseases of Rice 3. 1821 - E. M. Fries published Systema Mycologicum for naming of fungi; he was named as Linnaeus of Mycology. Favourable weather conditions for the appearance of leaf spots are given below: i. Infections from spores arriving from a distance are termed primary infections. When these weather parameters become favourable, late blight of potato appears. Fungicidal control of wheat rusts and Alternaria blight. • Infected heads develop shriveled grain seeds. Another rule of forecasting the potato blight was reported by Beaumont. Cloud cover should not be less than 80 per cent. Favourable weather conditions for the incidence of rust: ii. Powdery mildew: Erysiphe graminis var. It appears earlier than the late leaf spot. The ergot bodies, which are also called sclerotia, are formed from a hard mass of fungal mycelium, and are the over-wintering structures in … Minimum temperature should not be less than 10°C. Loose Smut - Ustilago tritici, Stem Rust / Black Rust: Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, Stripe Rust /Yellow Rust-Puccinia striiformis, Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | TNAU Publications | Contact Us, The postules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust, usually do not coalesce, and contain masses of orange to orange-brown Urediospores.Â. Agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) based integrated pests management (IPM) A. AESA B. Insect pests 2. Mean temperature should be between 22.5-23.5°C. Rice crop grown under irrigated conditions is more susceptible to this disease. Wheat rust can move from Nilgiri hills towards north in central India. But if these conditions persist for a longer period, the disease may continue through out the growing period of the crop. These black teliospores often are blown away by the wind, leaving only the bare rachis and remnants of other floral structures. Yellow or stripe rust - Puccinia striiformis Symptom Mainly occur on leaves than the leaf sheaths and stem. Nematodes 4. Disease can be controlled by planting resistant wheat varieties, planting disease-free seed and using a seed treatment prior to planting; disease may also be avoided by planting wheat early in the Fall and by shallow seeding Ergot disease Claviceps purpurea Ergot on wheat spike Wheat spikes infected with ergot Therefore, incidence of late blight of potato is common in hilly regions. TANJORE WILT / BASAL STEM END ROT; Ganoderma Wilt / ANABE ROGA Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (1982, 2002) White Fly Infestation in Fruit Crops PATH371 - Disease of Horticultural crops and their management: GPBR111 - Principles of Genetics : Agricultural Engineering: GPBR112 - Principles of Seed Technology: AENG151 - Fundamentals of soil water conservation and engineering : GPBR211 - Principles of Plant Breeding: AENG252 - Protected cultivation and Post Harvest Technology: GPBR212 - Breeding of Field and Horticultural crops : … The teliospores are also arranged in long stripes and are dull black in colour. Seed treatment with Carboxin 2g/kg (Vitavax 2g/kg). iii. Rodent pests B. Pests of Regional Significance 1. The veins show brown to black discoloration. Pustules are usually separate and scattered, heavy infections -coalesce. Author: TNAU. The weather conditions become favourable for the appearance of rust by the end of January. Nene YL, Saxena SC, Singh A, Mishra AB, Singh DV, Joshi LM, Tyagi PD, Ruikar SK, Gupta RS, 1971. Generally these diseases can damage the crop by 10 – 15 per cent. Rotting of primary and secondary roots, rotten roots turn black and roots contain large number of black sclerotia. In rainfed upland areas, irrigated rice-wheat system. There should be intermittent cloudiness and dew. ii. Later on during winter season, when wheat crop is grown in the plains of north India, rust has the tendency to migrate from the Nepal hills to plains of north India. Report a Violation, Weather Parameter and Movement of Insects | Pest Diseases, Crops Fluctuated due to Climatic Parameters: 15 Crops. This disease usually appears at the later stage of the crop during rainy season. This disease appears at flowering and podding stage in the form of Pycinia and Aecia. Affected plants can be pulled out easily. Maximum disease severity occurs when maximum temperature is around 27°C and relative humidity should be around 92 per cent during rainy days. Privacy Policy 8. The disease development is faster when cloudy weather persists and day and night temperatures are around 20-25°C and relative humidity is between 70 and 80 per cent. ii. Weather conditions favourable for its multiplication are given below: (a) Mean air temperature between 15 to 20°C should prevail for a week. Relative humidity should range between 77 to 86 per cent. In 1920 it was affiliated to Madras University. This rust appears in Punjab during the month of February. Mean temperature should not be more than 24°C. Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia Boisduval) - Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, … The weather conditions favourable for the incidence of disease are given below: i. ii. This disease may appear at any phenological stage of the crop. It has been observed that primary source of infection is the plant residue left in the fields. iii. Brown rust can appear in the entire wheat belt under favourable weather conditions. Before the spore masses break through the epidermis, the infection sites feel rough to the touch, As the spore masses break through, the surface tissues take on a ragged and torn appearance. Threshold of 10,000 juveniles/kg soil develop disease. In India, during summer season, high temperatures do not allow either the wheat crop or the rust to survive in the plain areas. Problems and Progress of Wheat Pathology in South Asia. 1755 - French botanist Tillet published a paper on bunt or stinking smut of wheat; discovered bunt is a disease of wheat. 4. There should be high and prolonged rainfall. (c) Intermittent cloudiness must exist in the end of January or first week of February. It is an important disease of groundnut. Diseases of Pulses 5. Image Guidelines 5. There should be dew for at least four hours during the night. Temperature should persist between 10-24°C for at least two days. Survival : Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops, Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown - occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes. Foliar diseases of wheat-leaf spots and blights In: Joshi LM, Singh DV, Srivastava KD, eds. The pustules of stripe rust, which, contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow stripes on the leaves. High relative humidity should persist. … ii. The fungus is internally seed borne (dormant mycelium within the embryoof the barley seed). 2. The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores. 1807 - French scientist I. Weekly cumulative rainfall should exceed critical value for two weeks. Diseases of Rice: i. The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores. One of the factors causing plant diseases is parasites, those living organisms that can colonize the tissues of their host-plant victims and can be transmitted from plant to plant. ii. Leaf spot may be of two types. 5. Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown - occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes. Proceedings of the Xth All India Wheat … Wheat provides nourishment to 35% of world population. Different rules have been suggested for the forecast of late blight of potato: According to this rule, following weather conditions must prevail: i. Weather conditions are favourable for the survival of wheat rust in central Nepal, which acts as a source region for the wheat rust. Losses may be more in those areas where the crop is grown under irrigated conditions because of higher humidity. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers. These conditions adversely affect the spread of the disease. Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts. Ergot symptoms become evident during kernel formation, when ergot bodies are formed in place of kernels. Early leaf spot and late leaf spot. Lecture 18 - Diseases of Mulberry Mulberry Root rot- Macrophomina phaseolina Symptoms Sudden wilting, withering of leaves and affected plants fail to sprout after pruning and dry up completely. Favourable weather conditions for its multiplication are given below: (a) Mean air temperature should range between 16 to 27°C. iv. Weather conditions not favourable for the incidence of the disease: i. Relative humidity at 1400 hours should remain above 70 per cent. Relative humidity should range between 86 – 93 per cent. Severity of the disease is likely to increase if the minimum temperature remains below 23°C with relative humidity more than 90 per cent for many days. 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